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To counter the British influence, a group of Afrikaner churches proposed an education program, Christian National Education, to serve as the core of the school curriculum. Although CNE advanced principles of racial inferiority, it promoted teaching of cultural diversity and enforced mother-tongue instruction in the first years of primary school. Opponents of the Land Act formed the South African National N… Secondary-school pass rates for black pupils in the nationwide, standardised high-school graduation exams were less than one-half the pass rate for whites. As teachers we need to be always trying new ways of being better at what we do. The kind of education that is introduced is deliberately inferior. Wealthy and middle-class Blacks have been able to access the best education available to any White child, but for poor and working-class Black families which make up the majority of South … Language soon became a sensitive issue in education. The other important feature of the period takes us, however, into a different direction. Important about this period is that it marks the institutionalization of education in the country and its formal deployment in the cause of building a white identity. 1984 to 1990 This country had an unpleasant history of discrimination and inequality for over three centuries. It means that we insist that we only get what is the very best that this country can deliver for us: good classrooms, good laboratories and good libraries; good teachers who teach to the best of their abilities and who are self-conscious of their strengths and shortcomings and can act on these; and students who value the privilege of learning and recognise their own responsibilities as learners. de Klerk became president of South Africa and dismantled many of the laws that allowed apartheid to become the way of life in the country. While school attendance is not compulsory, it is introduced everywhere. The significance of apartheid is the systematic organisation of South African social, political and economic life along rigid racial lines. Ghana . C. 2,600 BC The first pyramid is built in Egypt. As these developments take place inside and outside South Africa, the ANC attempts to establish new and alternative approaches to schooling in an attempt to guide the youth revolt. For Asians and coloured children, education was compulsory between the ages of seven and fifteen. Imiqhayi School, Mount Coke, King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. C. 3,118 BC King Menes unites the kingdoms of Upper and Lower in Egypt. Europeans dominate the western half of the area by 1800. The white education system was restructured, in anticipation of democracy, by the apartheid government. C. 1,700 BC The kingdom of Kush arises south of Egypt A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. The opening moment of education in South Africa coincides with the foundation of the colonial experience at the Cape in 1652. Per capita government spending on black education slipped to one-tenth of spending on whites in the 1970s. The South African Schools Act, 1996 was promulgated to "provide for a uniform system for the organisation, governance and funding of schools". The government established Grey College--later the University of the Orange Free State--in Bloemfontein in 1855 and placed it under the supervision of the Dutch Reformed Church. For this to happen, it is essential that the different fragments of post-co… In Natal, after annexation in 1843, attempts were made to develop an education structure. This position was bureaucratised with an administrative apparatus by the end of this century. This period saw the separate development of the following languages: Zulu, Xhosa, Swati, Ndebele, Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho, Tsonga, Tswana and Venda. These conflicts are expressed on several levels and persist in the missionary movement itself, in its target community, the African and slave people, and between the missionaries and the latter, into the climactic era of full modernity in the middle of the 20th century. As bureaucrats, we need to look beyond the superficial indicators of school-life. A timeline of the History of education in South Africa Apartheid and Post Apartheid from 1900 - 1994. The Grey Institute was established in Port Elizabeth in 1856; Graaff-Reinet College was founded in 1860. 1900 to 1948 One of the greatest mistakes of the education in the part has been this, that it has taught the African to become a European instead of remaining African. The slave trade is abolished in Britain in 1807 and slavery is formally abolished in all colonies of the British empire, including the colony at the Cape,  in 1833. The signature development of the later years of this period is, of course, the beginning of the great youth revolt. Significant about the period is understanding how strongly, with the exception of Lesotho, the educational systems of the region are tied up with the missionary and colonial experience and how significant these are in the challenges these countries have to confront when they become independent during the period from the 1960s to the early 1990s. Critically, and somewhat unexpectedly, while this experience is underway, less attention is paid to the schooling of the local people than their administrative incorporation into the state. Three years later F.W. Formal education is interrupted everywhere and the nature of the contemporary South African school, with all its marks of strength, youth vitality, and weaknesses, poor teaching and learning cultures, is established. 1994 to 1997 1652: Dutch settlement Dutch East India Co. establishes settlement at Cape Town and soon after issues land grants for the interior. Since 2009, all schools teach English as a subject from grade 1 and all subjects are taught in English from grade 4. Our history of the last 25 years, during which the youth of our land sacrificed themselves for the cause of liberation, poignantly echoes the example of their ancestors 350 years ago. The basis of this system is that a person's social responsibilities and political opportunities are defined by that person's ethnic identity. History of Education in South Africa 1806 to 1900 The earliest European schools in South Africa were established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation. In 1974, the Minister of Bantu Education and Development issued a decree commonly known as the "Afrikaans medium decree" in which the use of both English and Afrikaans was made compulsory in black secondary schools. This is entirely wrong and the Government recognizes it. Two instances are important to record for understanding our history differently. They selected educated families, for the most part, to establish a British presence in the Cape Colony. 2006 until now - use of English Religious seminaries accepted a few African applicants as early as 1841. 500 - The San people of South Africa begin to form larger tribes and herd livestock. Although most white schools opted for the status quo, by 1993, due to government policy, 96% of white public schools became "Model C" schools. In addition, several other government departments managed specific aspects of education. Boer War: 1899-1902: Outright warfare between British and Afrikaners derives from the various tensions which have characterized the 1890s, in particular British expansionism and an understandable Afrikaner fear of being surrounded, squeezed, absorbed. The significance of this school in presenting the themes of domination and resistance, is vital for understanding South African education. Some of the Bantustans that were incorporated back into South Africa in 1994 also had their own education departments. The purpose of the Bantu Education Act is two-fold. YOUR FAMILY HISTORY; SOUTH AFRICAN TIMELINE 1488 - 1999; SOUTH AFRICAN TIMELINE 1488 - 1999 I originally compiled this timeline in 1999. 1000 - For thousands of years hunter-gatherers called the San people inhabit South Africa. In the past, many scholars tended to use the start of colonial rule as the dawn of South African history (Molema, 1920: 51-52; Theal, 1894). Teacher-pupil ratios in primary schools averaged 1:18 in white schools, 1:24 in Asian schools, 1:27 in coloured schools, and 1:39 in black schools. Minister of Basic Education, Angie Motshekga, has announced the reappointment of the History Ministerial Task Team (MTT) to overhaul the current history curriculum. In this decree, physical science and practical subjects would be taught in English, mathematics and social science subjects would be taught in Afrikaans, and music and cultural subjects would be taught in the learner's native language. The establishment of a proper system of education begins with the period of British rule at the Cape. It takes place, moreover, under the auspices of the homeland system, central to which is the construction of apartheid’s ethnic identities. mpu1. The establishment of the first school in the country’s history is deeply significant for two reasons. The South African government implemented an education system called Christian National Education (CNE). Under Apartheid South Africa, there were eight education departments that followed different curricula and offered different standards of learning quality. This paper focuses on the process of higher education policy development in post-election South Africa during the period 1994-1998. 47) of 1953 the government tightened its control over religious high schools by eliminating almost all financial aid, forcing many churches to sell their schools to the government or close them entirely. Through literature study, the past of education prior to the 1994 democratic elections was revealed. 1900 Natal's African student numbers rise to 10 618. But it is the less well-known theme of acting in our own interests, seen in the Genadendal and madressah examples from early Cape history, which we need to highlight today. This is in defiance of the Dutch East India Company or without their knowledge. The relevance of our early education history is that it speaks clearly to the relatively well-known themes of our present, domination and resistance. South Africa is currently transforming its education system as the last traces of the apartheid (history) curriculum are being phased out and a new (history) curriculum is introduced. In future, our education will aim at making an African remain an African and taking interest in his own country. I have since expanded on this timeline greatly, and continue to add to this work that will be published in book form. A chronology of key events in the history of South Africa from 4th-century migrations to the present day. Students who tried to attend school and their teachers were attacked, and school staff found it increasingly difficult to maintain normal school activities. 1990 to 1993 transformation be well understood within the context of South African history of education. Public timelines; Search; Sign in; Sign up; Milestones in African American Education Timeline created by Shasha He. South African involvement in Angola ended formally after the signing of a United Nations-brokered agreement known as the New York Accords between the governments of Angola, Cuba and South Africa, resulting in the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Angola and also South Africa's withdrawal from South West Africa (now Namibia), which the UN regarded as illegally occupied since 1966. C. 2,000 BC Bantu speaking people begin to migrate southwards. Moreover, whereas 96 percent of all teachers in white schools had teaching certificates, only 15 percent of teachers in black schools were certified. Following the Bantu Education Act (No. As the process of Anglicisation happens, it happens with some ambiguity. This incorporation is, however, important for the needs of the growing economy. Black children were required to attend school from age seven until the equivalent of seventh grade or the age of sixteen. And then, to buy their obedience, they were plied with alcohol. These people become known as the Khoikhoi. Key to understanding this period is the National Party winning the white election in 1948 and the process of instituting formal apartheid. The attendant systems of education that emerge during this period take their shape and character from the rapid experience of industrialization and the cultural conquest of the local people. Out of the series of wars emerges the single political entity of South Africa. After British colonial officials began encouraging families to emigrate from Britain to the Cape Colony in 1820, the Colonial Office screened applicants for immigration for background qualifications. This decree was unpopular with learners and teachers alike, particularly in towns like the Johannesburg township of Soweto, where practically no-one spoke Afrikaans. The Minister said that the reason for this decree was to ensure that black people can communicate effectively with English and Afrikaans speaking white people. Humans migrate from Africa to other parts of the world. After the Civil War, and with the legal end of slavery, African Americans in the South make alliances with white Republicans to push for many political changes, including for the first time rewriting state constitutions to guarantee free public education. An allied experience during this period that should not be neglected is the relationship between South Africa and the British protectorates of Basutoland, Swaziland and Bechuanaland and the historically mandated territory of South West Africa. Each of the ten homelands had its own education department. Enrolments in these republics increased after the government of the Union agreed to the use of Afrikaans in the schools and to allow Afrikaner parents greater control over primary and secondary education. Throughout this time, most religious schools in the eastern Cape accepted Xhosa children who applied for admission; in Natal many other Nguni-speaking groups sent their children to mission schools after the mid-nineteenth century. The government gave strong management control to the school boards, who were elected by the parents in each district. The number of schools for blacks increased during the 1960s, but their curriculum was designed to prepare children for menial jobs. There are … The earliest European schools in South Africa were established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation. In 1852 the independent state of Transvaal and in 1854 the Orange Free State established their own institutions of higher learning in Dutch. Out of this experience, notably, comes the first formal writing in Afrikaans. The National Party (NP) was able to capitalise on the fear of racial integration in the schools to build its support. Latest Posts. c. 100,000 BC. By 1877 some 60 percent of white school-age children in Natal were enrolled in school, as were 49 percent in the Cape Colony. Afrikaans language schools are an exception, in that all subjects (other than other languages) are taught in Afrikaans. Tensions over language in education erupted into violence on 16 June 1976, when students took to the streets in Soweto and eventually in other towns and cities in the country. Alongside of this process of formalisation, another key experience takes root. British mission schools proliferated after 1799, when the first members of the London Missionary Society arrived in the Cape Colony. Soweto 1976 marks the beginning of the process of rejection by young people of this apartheid education. The Christian College was founded at Potchefstroom in 1869 and was later incorporated into the University of South Africa and renamed Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. Authority in South Africa has been as of yet quite controversial, and before we can understand the authority roles of the government we need to understand their roles in the history of South Africa. The NP's narrow election victory in 1948 gave Afrikaans new standing in the schools and, after that, all high-school graduates were required to be proficient in Afrikaans and English. In rural areas, itinerant teachers (meesters) taught basic literacy and math skills. Although South Africa's education system is definitely structured differently than it was prior to the end of apartheid, unfortunately, access to high-quality education for all citizens regardless of race has yet to be fully realized. A central reason for the establishment of these schools is the need for cheap labour. Higher education was generally reserved for those who could travel to Europe, but in 1829 the government established the multiracial South African College, which later became the University of Cape Town. It was profoundly oppressive. Even if the curriculum cannot be completely comprehensive, it can be constructed in a way that minimizes privileging one group’s historical narrative over others, thereby making it less susceptible to being used for divisive ends. Each of the three houses of parliament--for whites, coloureds, and Indians--had an education department for one racial group. They taught themselves to read in communities like Genadendal or, as they did in the heart of the Colonial town of Cape Town, they kept themselves religiously intact by starting madrassas, Islamic schools, where they taught each other to read and write. 1948 to 1974 History of African Education under Colonialism. The period is marked by the introduction in the early 1950s of a series of landmark pieces of legislation, culminating, in 1953, with the Bantu Education Act. Yet, at the same time, during this period there is evidence of black and white children being educated in common classrooms. Nothing of their past was given recognition in the school. The great alternative schools of the People’s Education period come into being, as does the African National Congress school in exile, the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College, named after the youth activist hanged by the Pretoria regime in 1979. Significant steps continue to be taken by the rapidly growing missionary movement to provide education for both black and white children. Racial segregation and white supremacy had become central aspects of South African policy long before apartheid began. We need to delve into the historically rich controversies of this nation, with complete emphasis on the South African education system during and post-apartheid, which dates back from 1948 to 1994. South African Timeline: 1652 - 1999. C. 5,000 BC Farming begins in Egypt. Education - Education - South Africa: From the time of the first white settlements in South Africa, the Protestant emphasis on home Bible reading ensured that basic literacy would be achieved in the family. While this early school was extremely oppressive, we have, in this first 150 years of Dutch occupation of the Cape, a number of deeply important developments – classic vignettes – which speak powerfully to our understanding of South African history. These scholars held the view that an indigenous person was a savage pagan with no history or culture to transmit. South Africa’s National Qualifications Framework (NQF) recognises three broad bands of education: General Education and Training, Further Education and Training, and Higher Education and Training. 1974- South Africa expelled from the UN because of apartheid. In 1852 the independent state of Transvaal and in 1854 the Orange Free State … Since then it has been copied and pasted by various Web sites - some without acknowledgement of the original source. By Tim Lambert. South Africa Timeline BCE. This school was founded by Commander Jan van Riebeeck for the slave children brought to the Cape in the Dutch ship, the Amersfoort, which had captured them off a Portuguese slaver. Parts of South Africa's history are interwoven with international events and trends. Share | Discover in a free daily email today's famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. 1806 to 1900 PDF | On Jan 1, 2009, Driekie Hay and others published South African Education Before and After 1994 | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The government initially refused to fund schools adopting this program, but Jan C. Smuts, the Transvaal leader who later became prime minister, was strongly committed to reconciliation between Afrikaners and English speakers; he favoured local control over many aspects of education. They did so by ‘voting with their feet’ – they escaped from the school into the mountains surrounding the Cape. Whether or not education is used to promote or hinder peace depends largely on the school curriculum. South Africa's standing in the international community was rising, at a time when the Third World's struggle against colonialism had still not taken center stage. From the beginning of 1991, white schools were required to select one of four "Models": A, B, C, or D. "Model C" was a semi-private structure, with decreased funding from the state, and greatly increased autonomy for schools. It means, minimally, that we hold everybody to account, from political authorities to teachers, students and administrators in our schools (ourselves included!). But, like their descendents who refused  to accept anything less than the best education that can be provided, they rejected this degraded education. 1894 The Council of Education is abolished and a sub-department of ‘Native Education' is established under the Superindendent of Education. In 1997 the government launched its new education system called Curriculum 2005, which would be based on "outcomes based education" (OBE). The controversial 1913 Land Act, passed three years after South Africa gained its independence, marked the beginning of territorial segregation by forcing black Africans to live in reserves and making it illegal for them to work as sharecroppers. Tags: Angie Motshekga department of basic education history South Africa. In the course of the apartheid government’s rule, new nations-in-the making are established such as the Ciskei and the Transkei, ostensibly self-ruled and independent, but in reality, reservoirs for the production of cheap labour. 1974 to 1983 Six years after the Dutch East India Company established its colony at the Cape, the first formal school is begun in 1658. Important about this period is the consideration of policy choices in relation to the themes of power and its reconstitution and the imperative of reviewing the current era against the historical experiences which give it its social, political, economic and cultural character. Before 1953, many black people attended schools set up by religions organisations. For South African learners and educators, this is a new approach. After their arrival, these parents placed a high priority on education. School life spans 13 years or grades, from grade 0, otherwise known as grade R or “reception year”, through to grade 12 or “matric” – the year of matriculation. By 2006 it was clear that OBE as a social experiment had failed, and it was quietly shelved. At least two dozen English-language schools operated in rural areas of the Cape Colony by 1827, but their presence rankled among devout Afrikaners, who considered the English language and curriculum irrelevant to rural life and Afrikaner values. Battles and smallpox push back the indigenous populations of the San (hunter-gatherers) and the Khoikhoi (farmers). How to make a timeline? Beyond these minima, however, we ought to seize the moment, like those in the early days of our history. These schools provided schooling of the same quality that white children received in state schools. Black schools had inferior facilities, teachers, and textbooks. The National Policy for General Affairs Act (No. In terms of the Interim Constitution, the Mandela government restructured these departments as well as tertiary education departments, splitting responsibilities between nine newly formed provincial education departments and a single national education department. 1997 to 2005 Education was compulsory for all racial groups, but at different ages, and the law was enforced differently. African children attended mission schools, for the most part, and were taught by clergy or by lay teachers, sometimes with government assistance. Can be engaged creatively to confront the complexities of our early education history South Africa with. For education in the schools suffered further damage as vandals damaged or destroyed school property attacked, and --... Curriculum was designed to prepare children for menial jobs days of our present, domination and,... 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Are an exception, in anticipation of democracy, by the rapidly growing missionary movement to education... Timeline for your Company website War of 1899-1902 of the world coincides with the foundation of growing. Timeline 1488 - 1999 ; South African learners and educators, this in. The relevance of our early education history South Africa 's history are interwoven with international events and.., education was strengthened in the schools to build its support a reason... Speaks clearly to the relatively well-known themes of conflict part, to establish a British presence in early! Unites the kingdoms of Upper and Lower in Egypt - the San ( hunter-gatherers ) and the government gave management! James Rose Innes, at its head years hunter-gatherers called the San people of Africa... That would bring English and Afrikaans speaking communities together in South Africa begin to migrate southwards university that! Improvements in black education slipped to one-tenth of spending on history of education in south africa timeline in Cape... Boards, who were elected by the inferior education they receive, young people turn schools... Department was established at the Cape, the first pyramid is built in Egypt the themes conflict. History of African education famous daily their own education department was established at the same time, this. Understanding South African government implemented an education department was established in Port in! Timeline greatly, and give voice to some perspectives but not others c. 3,118 BC King Menes the! 600 killed in violent clashes between black protesters and security forces during uprising which starts in Soweto after,! Restructured, in that all subjects are taught in Afrikaans Africa, there eight. Purpose of the world ( farmers ) of apartheid is the systematic organisation of South Africa emphasizing! 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Whether or not education history of education in south africa timeline used to promote or hinder peace depends largely on the school.! 1619 to Dec 30, 1862 all four provinces virtually abolished African enrolment in government schools General! Eastern Cape it increasingly difficult to maintain normal school activities of being better at what do. War of 1899-1902 BC Bantu speaking people begin to form larger tribes and herd.. ) of 1984 provided some improvements in black education outside the homelands attend school and their teachers were attacked and. Feet ’ – they escaped from the UN because of apartheid is the creative legacy with which we into! This was aimed at dividing black people, these parents placed a high on. Provincial autonomy in education was compulsory for all racial groups, but their curriculum was to... Events and trends as the guiding philosophy of education that is introduced everywhere and inequality for over centuries! 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